My research is qualitative and interdisciplinary. I combine theories and methods from social sciences, humanities, management, and engineering to produce unique frameworks and actionable insights.

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Recent insights: AI Countergovernance

All projects
In-Progress: The Governance of AI in Canada

The Governance of AI in Canada

Years: 2019 – Present

As the first country to launch a national AI strategy and as an early champion of many AI policies and ethics statements, Canada has developed a uniquely innovative system of AI governance.

This project investigates a wide range of Canadian AI governance initiatives and identifies opportunities for strengthening Canada’s overall system of AI governance.


  • Research report: “Perceptions of Canada’s AI Governance System: Findings from Interviews with 20 Government Leaders & Subject Matter Experts” (2024)
  • Research paper: “The governance of artificial intelligence in Canada: Findings and opportunities from a review of 84 AI governance initiatives” (2023)
  • White paper: “Comments on Guide on the use of Generative AI” (2023)
  • Research paper: “Valuing value chains: On Canadian AI regulation, co-governance, and the scope of AI value chains” (2023)
  • White paper: “Comments on Canadian Guardrails for Generative AI – Code of Practice” (2023)
  • Policy brief: “Generative AI systems: Impacts on artists & creators and related gaps in the Artificial Intelligence and Data Act” (2023)
  • Conference slides: “AI Governance and Worker Protections in Canada” (2022)
  • White paper: “Comments on the 3rd Review of the Directive on Automated Decision-making” (2022)
  • Essay: “Public service, public-as-a-service, and public self-service: The case of Sidewalk Toronto” (2022)
  • Opinion article in The Globe and Mail: “Once a promising leader, Canada’s artificial-intelligence strategy is now a fragmented laggard” (2022)
  • Research paper: “Emerging national artificial intelligence innovation systems in Canada and China” (2020)
  • Conference poster & conference abstract: “AI governance systems: Ontological explorations in the Canadian context” (2020)


In-Progress: The Ethics & Governance of AI Value Chains

The Ethics & Governance of AI Value Chains

Years: 2020 – Present

The development, use, and governance of AI systems involves many types of resource inputs and outputs that are distributed across global value chains. This project investigates the ethics and governance of the value chains of various AI systems.



In-Progress: The Fluidity of 'AI'

The Fluidity of “AI”

Years: 2020 – Present

How the meaning of “artificial intelligence” is interpreted by persons, groups, and organizations has cascading effects on the development, use, and governance of AI systems. This project explores those cascading effects and their implications for AI ethics, practice, and policy.


  • Essay: “Artificial intelligence in the interregnum” (2023)
  • Conference slides: “The ontological crisis in AI: Normative positions, interpretive frames, & future directions” (2023)
  • Book chapter: “Queering intelligence: A theory of intelligence as performance and a critique of individual and artificial intelligence” (2023)
  • Conference slides: “The new ontologies of AI: A dilemma for AI governance” (2022)
  • Conference slides: “Intelligence as performance” (2021)


Complete: Service Systems Analysis Framework

Service Systems Analysis Framework

Years: 2016-2019

Research Questions: 

  • What theories and methods of service system analysis have been discussed in the recent literature?
  • How might existing analysis frameworks be synthesized, improved, and applied to solving system design problems?



  • Systematic review and synthesis of literature on service science, engineering, management, and design.
  • Development of a multilayer framework for service system analysis.
  • Application of the service system analysis framework to a specific business case.



  • Book chapter: “A multilayer framework for service systems analysis.” (2019)
  • Research paper: “Service systems analysis methods: A systematic literature review.” (2017)



  • Kelly Lyons & Michael Cheng


Complete: Information Audit & Evaluation Framework

Information Audit & Evaluation Framework

Years: 2016-2018

Research Questions: 

  • How might information auditing frameworks be synthesized with information management evaluation frameworks?
  • What components would be required of a synthesized information auditing and evaluation framework, and how might such a framework be applied in practice?



  • Systematic review and synthesis of literature on information auditing and information management evaluation.
  • Development of a synthesized framework for information auditing and evaluation.
  • Application of the information auditing and evaluation framework to projects at the Legislative Assembly of Ontario, University of Toronto, and Toronto Metropolitan University.



  • Research paper: “Revisiting the information audit: A systematic literature review and synthesis” (2017)
  • Research paper: “iVal: An information evaluation framework for knowledge workers” (2016)



  • Chun Wei Choo on “Revisiting the information audit: A systematic literature review and synthesis”


Complete: Workforce Services Design & Innovation

Workforce Services Design & Innovation

Years: 2018

Research Questions: 

  • What are the best practices for service design in Ontario’s employment services & training sector?
  • How can the services delivered by Ontario’s employment services & training sector be improved?



  • Research report: “Employment Sector Council’s Common Assessment Process: A case study of a collaborative community approach to service delivery, access, and excellence.” (2018)
  • Research report: “Intergenerational healing and growth: A case study of the Aboriginal Skills Advancement Program.” (2018)



  • Cayley Bower on “Employment Sector Council’s Common Assessment Process”
  • S. Kathleen Bailey on “Intergenerational healing and growth”



Last updated April 8, 2024